Four lifestyle factors combined and cardiovascular disease

A healthful diet and lifestyle is related to low CVD risk A Mediterranean style diet, a high level of physical activity, not smoking and moderate alcohol consumption were all associated with low 10-year risk of CHD and CVD in the European HALE project. A very low risk of these diseases was observed in elderly men who had four compared to those who had none [...]

Four lifestyle factors combined and cardiovascular disease

Optimism and cardiovascular disease

High optimism low CVD mortality Optimism was a relatively stable trait over 15 years in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Elderly men with a high level of optimism had only half the risk of 15-year CVD mortality compared to those with a low level of optimism. Similar results were obtained after adjustment for CVD risk factors, lifestyle factors, living arrangements, self-rated health and depressive symptoms. [...]

Optimism and cardiovascular disease

Depressive symptoms and cardiovascular disease

Depressive symptoms related to CVD mortality Elderly men from the FINE study cohorts of Finland, the Netherlands and Italy who manifested a number of depressive symptoms had a 2-fold greater 10-year CVD mortality. The relative risk did not change after excluding cases that died from CVD in the first 5 years of follow-up. The strongest associations were observed with the mortality from stroke and [...]

Depressive symptoms and cardiovascular disease

Average saturated fat intake and 25-year coronary heart disease rates in the 16 cohorts

The average population intake of saturated fat varied between 3% of energy in Japan and 22% of energy in Eastern Finland in the 1960s. There was also a 6-fold range in 25-year CHD mortality rates among the 16 cohorts. The average saturated fat intake at baseline was strongly correlated with 25-year CHD mortality rates. The higher the saturated fat intake, the higher the CHD [...]

Average saturated fat intake and 25-year coronary heart disease rates in the 16 cohorts

Flavan-3-ols (catechins) and cardiovascular disease

Flavan-3-ol intake related to CHD but not to stroke An average intake of monomeric flavan-3-ols of 124 mg/d, compared to an average intake of 25 mg/d, was associated with a 51% lower 10-year CHD mortality in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Tea is a rich source of both flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Therefore we analyzed also the intake of tea, flavan-3-ols not from tea and flavonols [...]

Flavan-3-ols (catechins) and cardiovascular disease

Average serum cholesterol level and 25-year CHD death rates in the 16 cohorts

In the 1960s average serum cholesterol levels varied from 160 mg/dl (4 mmol/l) in the Japanese cohorts to 270 mg/dl (7 mmol/l) in Eastern Finland. The baseline serum cholesterol levels of the 16 cohorts were positively correlated with the CHD mortality rates after 5, 10, and 25 years. The higher the average serum cholesterol level at baseline the higher the CHD mortality rates. Cohorts with low serum [...]

Average serum cholesterol level and 25-year CHD death rates in the 16 cohorts