White Blood Cell count and all-cause mortality

High white blood cell count, high CHD mortality A high White Blood Cell (WBC) count is associated with a high all-cause mortality in the Zutphen Elderly Study. After adjustment for risk factors, each 10/9/L increase in WBC was associated with a 21% higher 5-year CHD mortality. Smoking increases WBC, but this association is independent of smoking. Interpretation WBCs are activated in the presence of [...]

White Blood Cell count and all-cause mortality

Hand-grip strength and disability

Hand-grip strength related to lower disability Hand-grip strength at baseline was inversely related to 4-year disability in rural elderly men in Italy. Of the men with a hand-grip strength rated "good", 26% became disabled versus 48% who were graded "poor". This inverse relationship of grip strength to risk of disability remained after multivariable analysis. Interpretation This small study among one SCS cohort shows that [...]

Hand-grip strength and disability

Chlamydia pneumonia and coronary heart disease

Chronic chlamydia infection related to 3-fold higher CHD risk In the Zutphen Elderly Study a high level of antibodies to C. pneumonia was associated with an almost 3-fold higher risk of first CHD events after 5 years of follow-up. This association was independent of potential confounders. In contrast, antibodies of cytomegalovirus and Helicobactor pylori were not associated with excess CHD risk. Interpretation Chronic infections with C. pneumonia [...]

Chlamydia pneumonia and coronary heart disease

Long QT interval and coronary heart disease

Long QT interval related to high risk of CHD mortality A long QT interval in the resting ECG was associated with a 4-fold 15-year CHD mortality risk in middle-aged men and a 3-fold 5-year risk in the elderly men of Zutphen. These associations could not be attributed to prevalent heart disease and were independent of other cardiovascular risk factors. Interpretation Middle-aged men in the [...]

Long QT interval and coronary heart disease

White Blood Cell count and coronary heart disease

High White Blood Cell count, high CHD mortality A high White Blood Cell (WBC) count is associated with a higher CHD mortality in the Zutphen Elderly Study. After adjustment for risk factors each 109/L increase in WBC was associated with a 27% greater 5-year CHD mortality. WBC is greater in smokers, but this association was independent of smoking. Interpretation WBCs are activated in the [...]

White Blood Cell count and coronary heart disease

Body mass index and all-cause mortality

Underweight and overweight related to all-cause mortality In the European cohorts of the SCS middle-aged men with a body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2 had a 2-fold greater all-cause mortality after 15 years of follow-up compared to those in the reference category (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2). Overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2) was not related to higher mortality. Obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) men who never smoked had an approximately 50% higher risk of [...]

Body mass index and all-cause mortality

Four lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality

A healthful diet and lifestyle are related to a low all-cause mortality risk A Mediterranean style diet, a high level of physical activity, non-smoking and moderate alcohol consumption were all associated with a low 10-year risk of all-cause mortality in the European HALE project. A very low all-cause mortality risk was observed in elderly men who had four healthful diet and lifestyle factors compared [...]

Four lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality

Global coronary risk in northern and southern Europe

Large differences in global CHD risk within Europe A re-analysis of the 10-year follow-up data of the SCS published in 2000 showed large differences between northern and southern Europe in the number of hard CHD events at the same level of the major risk factors serum cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking. The number of hard CHD events was 3 times higher in northern Europe compared to [...]

Global coronary risk in northern and southern Europe

From individual risk factors to global cardiovascular risk

Individual risk factors and CHD prevention in the past In the 1960s and 70s, the Seven Countries Study and many other studies identified serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and smoking as major risk factors of CHD. Since then, smoking cessation and dietary interventions were promoted for primary prevention with drug treatment recommended for strongly elevated serum cholesterol and/or blood pressure levels. Identification of high-risk individuals [...]

From individual risk factors to global cardiovascular risk

Major risk factors and cardiovascular disease

High blood pressure and smoking were risk factors for three major CVDs while serum cholesterol predicted only CHD Blood pressure and cigarette smoking predicted overall cardiovascular disease mortality and each major individual cardiovascular disease: that is, coronary heart disease, other heart disease and stroke. Serum cholesterol predicted cardiovascular and coronary heart disease mortality. The association of serum cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality is due to its [...]

Major risk factors and cardiovascular disease