Study Findings

Conclusions of the research in the Seven Countries

With hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, the Seven Countries Study generated an incredible amount of information. We’ve selected 82 main results and summarized them for you in our articles.

Cross-cultural findings

Diet, risk factors and coronary heart disease rates in the 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study

Early on in the study Ancel Keys and colleagues noticed interesting associations across cultures in the Seven Countries Study; cultures differed in their diets and corresponding differences were seen in saturated fat, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence after 5 and 10 years of follow-up.

Read more about these early associations.

Follow-up after 25 and 50 years

These associations were repeated using 25-year and 50-year CHD mortality data and extended with associations on flavonoids and dietary patterns.

Read about the associations from 25-year and 50-year follow-up

Explore the graphs with trends in CVD risk factors across time and cultures.
Show country trends

Main topics

Cardiovascular disease

Since the first measurements in 1958, the Seven Countries Study focused on predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes.

More about cardiovascular disease findings

Risk factors

Risk factors like serum cholesterol and blood pressure level were related to CHD and blood pressure was also associated with stroke.

More about risk factors


Diet, including nutrients, foods and dietary patterns varied widely among countries. The different aspects of diet and CVD were studied in cohorts and individuals.

More about diet


Lifestyle may be the most personal category and habits like smoking or alcohol were investigated in relation to CVD.

More about lifestyle

Healthy aging

From 1984 onwards, additional studies started to examine indicators of healthy aging in the elderly populations of in the SCS and related studies.

More about healthy aging

All-cause mortality

All-cause mortality is proxy variable for life expectancy. Here we examine cardiovascular predictors in relation to all-cause mortality.

More about all-cause mortality

Mental health

Mental health is a major contributor to quality of life. We investigate predictors of cognitive decline, depression and optimism.

More about mental health

Functional status

Physical health is a key element of healthy aging. Physical activity and other lifestyle choices may impact the physical functioning of the body.

More about functional status