Category Archive for: ‘Cholesterol’
Poor lung function associated with depression
Data from the Finnish and Italian cohorts showed that poor lung function in men aged 50-69 was associated with subsequent depressive symptoms 15-30 years later. This association was stronger in men with chronic diseases than in those without.
Decline in serum cholesterol predictor of depression
Among elderly men from Finland, The Netherlands and Italy, a 5-year decline in total serum cholesterol level was a predictor of depressive symptoms 5 years later. Men with two or more cardiovascular risk factors at entry (obesity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, or diabetes) had no higher future risk of depression in the Zutphen Elderly Study.
- Giltay et al Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008;16:874-82
- Bots et al. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008;23:478-84
- Giltay et al. Psychosomatic Med 2010;72:53-60
A Mediterranean style diet was consistently associated with lower cardiovascular risk
Adhering to a Mediterranean style diet was associated with a 39% lower coronary mortality risk and a 29% lower cardiovascular mortality risk in middle-aged and elderly European men and women in the HALE project. The Mediterranean diet score we used was based on eight basic food groups: bread, legumes, vegetables, fruit, fish, fats, dairy products and meats. A high intake of bread, legumes, vegetables, fruit and fats rich in unsaturated fatty acids, a moderate intake of fish and a low intake of dairy and meat was characteristic of a Mediterranean diet.
Measuring habitual diets
The HALE project dealt with European elderly men and women participating in the FINE and the SENECA Studies. They were 70-90 years old at baseline and were followed for 10 years. In both studies the dietary history was recorded as the measure of habitual food consumption.
CVD Main topics
Different results for saturated fat, serum cholesterol and CHD in the Zutphen and the Seven Countries Study.
In 1960 the average saturated fat intake of the middle-aged men in Zutphen was high and amounted to 18% of energy with a relatively small standard deviation of 3% of energy. Dietary saturated fat was not associated with serum cholesterol and 10-year CHD mortality in the Zutphen Study. But in contrast, among populations of the Seven Countries Study showed that the average saturated fat intake, average serum cholesterol level and 10-year CHD mortality rates in the 16 cohorts were strongly correlated.
Why this difference?
The strong correlations of population levels of dietary saturated fat and serum cholesterol with CHD mortality in the Seven Countries Study overall was due to large variations in average saturated fat intake, average serum cholesterol level and CHD mortality rates among the 16 cohorts. In the Zutphen Study saturated fat intake of individuals was not related to either serum cholesterol or CHD mortality. The zero correlations were the consequence of a small range in dietary saturated fat among the Zutphen men along with the large day-to-day variation within these men (see the graphs and Jacobs et al 1979).
- Kromhout. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:591-8
- Kromhout and De Lezenne Coulander. Am J Epidemiol 1984;119:733-41
- Keys et al. Harvard University Press. ISBN: 0-674-80273-3,1980:248-62
- Jacobs et al. Am J Epidemiol 1979;110:77-87
- Kromhout et al. Br J Nutr 2011;106;627-32
High serum cholesterol and high CHD mortality
High levels of cholesterol in blood serum are associated with a high risk of CHD mortality in the different cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged men are a strong predictor of CHD risk mortality after 10 and 25 years of follow-up. Both past and recent serum cholesterol levels are related to 35-year CHD mortality, although the strength of the association diminishes with increasing age. Serum cholesterol is also related to 40-year CVD mortality in the US railroad cohort.
Associations are similar within cultures, but absolute risk varies between cultures
The relative risks of CHD mortality in relation to serum cholesterol level were similar in the different cohorts. Large differences in absolute CHD risk were observed among the cohorts, with high absolute risks in northern Europe and the United States and low absolute risks in Mediterranean southern Europe and Japan.
The similar relative risks and different absolute risks of CHD among the cohorts implies that at the same serum cholesterol level in high-risk cultures, elevated serum cholesterol levels need to be treated more intensely than in low-risk cultures to achieve target levels and potential prevention.
- Keys et al. Harvard University Pres. ISBN: 0-674-80273-3, 1980:121-35
- Kromhout et al. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:1051-5
- Pekkanen et al. Am J Epidemiol 1992;274:131-6
- Verschuren et al. JAMA 1995;274:131-6
- Menotti et al. Eur J Epidemiol 2004;19:417-24
- Menotti et al. Eur J Epidemiol 2005;20:597-604
- Boshuizen et al. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:398-409
- Menotti et al. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2008;15:719-25