Cholesterol

A selection of study findings on cholesterol in the Seven Countries Study.

Major risk factors, long-term trends, coronary heart disease mortality, and European countries

Major risk factors were measured at entry and five times during 35 years. Smoking decreased over time and systolic blood pressure increased except for the East Finland cohort. A decrease of serum cholesterol occurred in Finland and in The Netherlands whereas serum cholesterol increased slightly in Italy, and large in Serbia and Greece. A comprehensive Risk Factor Change Score showed slight declines over 35 years [...]

Major risk factors, long-term trends, coronary heart disease mortality, and European countries

Global coronary risk in northern and southern Europe

Large differences in global CHD risk within Europe A re-analysis of the 10-year follow-up data of the SCS published in 2000 showed large differences between northern and southern Europe in the number of hard CHD events at the same level of the major risk factors serum cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking. The number of hard CHD events was 3 times higher in northern Europe compared to [...]

Global coronary risk in northern and southern Europe

From individual risk factors to global cardiovascular risk

Individual risk factors and CHD prevention in the past In the 1960s and 70s, the Seven Countries Study and many other studies identified serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and smoking as major risk factors of CHD. Since then, smoking cessation and dietary interventions were promoted for primary prevention with drug treatment recommended for strongly elevated serum cholesterol and/or blood pressure levels. Identification of high-risk individuals [...]

From individual risk factors to global cardiovascular risk

Major risk factors and cardiovascular disease

High blood pressure and smoking were risk factors for three major CVDs while serum cholesterol predicted only CHD Blood pressure and cigarette smoking predicted overall cardiovascular disease mortality and each major individual cardiovascular disease: that is, coronary heart disease, other heart disease and stroke. Serum cholesterol predicted cardiovascular and coronary heart disease mortality. The association of serum cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality is due to its [...]

Major risk factors and cardiovascular disease

Average serum cholesterol level and 25-year CHD death rates in the 16 cohorts

In the 1960s average serum cholesterol levels varied from 160 mg/dl (4 mmol/l) in the Japanese cohorts to 270 mg/dl (7 mmol/l) in Eastern Finland. The baseline serum cholesterol levels of the 16 cohorts were positively correlated with the CHD mortality rates after 5, 10, and 25 years. The higher the average serum cholesterol level at baseline the higher the CHD mortality rates. Cohorts with low serum [...]

Average serum cholesterol level and 25-year CHD death rates in the 16 cohorts

Serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease

Cholesterol found in the blood serum is, in higher quantities, associated with a higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). This is the conclusion after observing serum cholesterol levels and CHD risk mortality for forty years.

Serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease