CHD risk factors

Risk factors are measurable personal characteristics that are associated with a disease or health condition. In the Seven Countries Study, they are mostly physiological measurements, and their values were related to the risk of coronary or cardiovascular disease.

Read about the various associations between risk factors and CVD by exploring the articles below:

Major risk factors, long-term trends, coronary heart disease mortality, and European countries

Major risk factors were measured at entry and five times during 35 years. Smoking decreased over time and systolic blood pressure increased except for the East Finland cohort. A decrease of serum cholesterol occurred in Finland and in The Netherlands whereas serum cholesterol increased slightly in Italy, and large in Serbia and Greece. A comprehensive Risk Factor Change Score showed slight declines over 35 years [...]

Major risk factors, long-term trends, coronary heart disease mortality, and European countries

Blood pressure trajectories, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and life years lost

Ten-year blood pressure trajectories were identified in the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study and the Zutphen Study. Blood pressure trajectories were the strongest predictors of mortality in Minnesota and average blood pressure was the strongest predictor in Zutphen. The steepest  systolic blood pressure trajectory was associated with 4 times greater cardiovascular mortality risk in Minnesota and 2 times greater risk in Zutphen, compared [...]

Blood pressure trajectories, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and life years lost

Glucose tolerance, diabetes at entry and all-cause mortality in elderly men

The relationship of glucose tolerance at entry with 5-year all-cause mortality was investigated in Finland in men aged 65-84. Impaired compared to normal glucose tolerance was not associated with all-cause mortality in the Finnish elderly cohort. However, the relative risk of all-cause mortality in 5 years was twice as high among men with diabetes compared to those with normal glucose tolerance at entry. The [...]

Glucose tolerance, diabetes at entry and all-cause mortality in elderly men

Physical activity, smoking, insulin, glucose tolerance and diabetes in non-diabetic Dutch men

In 1990 in the Zutphen Elderly Study habitual physical activity of leisure-time was assessed with a validated questionnaire. On average, the men spent 1.5 hours a day engaged in activities such as walking, bicycling, gardening and hobbies. In this cross-sectional survey, men in the highest quartile of weekly physical activity (>2.8 hours/day) had lower serum insulin levels compared with those who were less active. [...]

Physical activity, smoking, insulin, glucose tolerance and diabetes in non-diabetic Dutch men

Diet, insulin and glucose tolerance in non-diabetic men in The Netherlands

In 1990 a cross-sectional survey was carried out on diet in relation to insulin in the Zutphen Elderly Study. The individual association of dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with the area under  the insulin curve. In 1970 the Zutphen Study also carried out a cross-sectional analysis on individual diet and glucose tolerance. The intake of saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol was positively [...]

Diet, insulin and glucose tolerance in non-diabetic men in The Netherlands

Diets of diabetic and non-diabetic elderly men in Finland, The Netherlands, and Italy

Around 1990, the diets of non-diabetic men differed markedly among the three countries. Dutch and Finnish elderly diabetic men consumed less added sugar than non-diabetic men. In these diabetic men meat, milk, and cheese consumption were highest in The Netherlands and vegetables, fruit and berries highest in Italy. The saturated fat intake of the diabetic and non-diabetic Finnish and Dutch men was more than [...]

Diets of diabetic and non-diabetic elderly men in Finland, The Netherlands, and Italy

Body fat, glucose tolerance and diabetes incidence in non-diabetic elderly men

In 1970, the Dutch cohort of middle-aged men received a fasting oral glucose tolerance test with a glucose load of 50 grams and blood taken after 30, 60 and 120 min. The cross-sectional analysis showed that the subscapular skinfold thickness was independently related to fasting, 60 and 120 min glucose levels and to the area under the glucose curve but not significantly related to [...]

Body fat, glucose tolerance and diabetes incidence in non-diabetic elderly men

Physical activity, dietary fiber and body fat

A cross-sectional analysis on survey data collected in 16 cohorts of middle-aged men in the 1960s showed that the average population index of occupational physical activity was strongly inversely related (R= -0.91) to the average population subscapular skinfold thickness, an indicator of total body fat. Average dietary fiber intake was also inversely associated ecologically, but weaker (R = -0.51), with average subscapular skinfold. Average [...]

Physical activity, dietary fiber and body fat

Long QT interval and coronary heart disease

Long QT interval related to high risk of CHD mortality A long QT interval in the resting ECG was associated with a 4-fold 15-year CHD mortality risk in middle-aged men and a 3-fold 5-year risk in the elderly men of Zutphen. These associations could not be attributed to prevalent heart disease and were independent of other cardiovascular risk factors. Interpretation Middle-aged men in the [...]

Long QT interval and coronary heart disease

White Blood Cell count and coronary heart disease

High White Blood Cell count, high CHD mortality A high White Blood Cell (WBC) count is associated with a higher CHD mortality in the Zutphen Elderly Study. After adjustment for risk factors each 109/L increase in WBC was associated with a 27% greater 5-year CHD mortality. WBC is greater in smokers, but this association was independent of smoking. Interpretation WBCs are activated in the [...]

White Blood Cell count and coronary heart disease