Disease outcomes

A selection of study findings on disease outcomes in the Seven Countries Study.

Loneliness and mortality in the Zutphen cohort of elderly men

Loneliness is prevalent in the elderly and included emotional and social loneliness. Information about loneliness was collected four times between 1985 and 2000. At baseline, 39% of elderly men were “moderate lonely” and 3% “severely lonely”. Emotional but not social loneliness, increased over 15 years. All-cause mortality data were collected from 1985 to 2010. All-cause mortality did not differ between moderate and severely lonely [...]

Loneliness and mortality in the Zutphen cohort of elderly men

Lung function, cognitive function, depressive symptoms and suicide

Poor lung function is a risk factor of cognitive impairment, depression and suicide In the European cohorts of the Seven Countries Study poor lung function in middle age was related to a higher risk of cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and completed suicide in late life. An interaction was observed for APOE4 genotypes. Lung function was positively associated with cognitive function in APOE4 non-carriers but [...]

Lung function, cognitive function, depressive symptoms and suicide

Blood pressure trajectories, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and life years lost

Ten-year blood pressure trajectories were identified in the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study and the Zutphen Study. Blood pressure trajectories were the strongest predictors of mortality in Minnesota and average blood pressure was the strongest predictor in Zutphen. The steepest  systolic blood pressure trajectory was associated with 4 times greater cardiovascular mortality risk in Minnesota and 2 times greater risk in Zutphen, compared [...]

Blood pressure trajectories, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and life years lost

Glucose tolerance, diabetes at entry and all-cause mortality in elderly men

The relationship of glucose tolerance at entry with 5-year all-cause mortality was investigated in Finland in men aged 65-84. Impaired compared to normal glucose tolerance was not associated with all-cause mortality in the Finnish elderly cohort. However, the relative risk of all-cause mortality in 5 years was twice as high among men with diabetes compared to those with normal glucose tolerance at entry. The [...]

Glucose tolerance, diabetes at entry and all-cause mortality in elderly men

Average Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI) and 50-year coronary heart disease mortality rates in 16 cohorts

The average consumption of vegetable foods was inversely related (R= -0.59), and animal foods (R =0.68), hard fats and sweet products (sugar products and pastries) (R=0.84) were positively related to 50-year CHD mortality rates. The MAI food pattern score was strongly inversely associated with 50-year CHD mortality rates (R= -0.91). (Figure 1, Kromhout et al. 2018) A high MAI score is an indicator of [...]

Average Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI) and 50-year coronary heart disease mortality rates in 16 cohorts

Average starch intake and 50-year coronary heart disease mortality rates in 16 cohorts

In the 1960s, foods were prepared at home and had more fiber than ultra-processed foods produced nowadays. The average intake of starch was correlated (R=0.74) with the average consumption of bread, cereals, legumes and potatoes. The average intake of starch varied from 10 % of energy in the US to more than 50 % of energy in Japan. The average  intake of starch was [...]

Average starch intake and 50-year coronary heart disease mortality rates in 16 cohorts

Average sucrose intake and 50-year coronary heart disease mortality rates in 16 cohorts

Dietary sugars consist of mono-and disaccharides and can be divided into naturally occurring sugars present in fruit (glucose and fructose), milk (lactose and galactose), grains (bread and pasta) (maltose) and added sugar (sucrose). In the 1960s traditional Western diets were high in sucrose, while the traditional Mediterranean and Japanese diets were low. The average intake of sucrose was related to 50-year CHD mortality rates [...]

Average sucrose intake and 50-year coronary heart disease mortality rates in 16 cohorts

Average intake of fatty acids, food groups and 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts

In the 1960s the average population intake of saturated (S), and trans fats (T) and hard fats (butter, lard, and hard margarine) was high in northern Europe while monounsaturated (M), polyunsaturated (P) fatty acids, and vegetable oils (mostly olive oil) were high in Mediterranean areas and total fat was low in Japan. The all-cause mortality rate was lowest in rural Crete and highest in [...]

Average intake of fatty acids, food groups and 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts

Average saturated fat intake and 50-year coronary heart disease mortality rates in 16 cohorts

In the 1960s there was a 6-fold difference in average population intake of saturated fatty acids: from Japan (3% of energy) to East Finland (22% of energy). The 50-year data confirm and extend the 25-year data. Average cohort intake of saturated fatty acids was strongly positively associated with 50-year CHD mortality rates (R = 0.92). (See figure) The sum of saturated and trans fatty [...]

Average saturated fat intake and 50-year coronary heart disease mortality rates in 16 cohorts

Physical activity, APOE4 genotype and cognitive decline

Physical activity reduces the risk of stroke and may subsequently diminish the risk of cognitive decline, but changing the level of activity is more influential than maintaining it.

Physical activity, APOE4 genotype and cognitive decline