Cardiovascular disease

The Seven Countries Study was the first systematic prospective study on diet, lifestyle, risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in contrasting populations. All of the early relationships on the population level had CHD, mainly heart attacks, as endpoint. The data that came out of those early efforts were suitable for drawing conclusions on a population level. See also the cross-cultural correlations.

The predictive findings for individuals came later in the study after years of follow-up, and together provided a sound basis for preventive practice.

Main CVD topics

Risk factors

Risk factors such as serum cholesterol can be measured in a person and in populations, and analyzed in respect to different outcomes. 


Diet, including nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns, can be associated with various outcomes.


Lifestyle may be the most personal category, but habits like smoking and alcohol can be associated with many health outcomes.