Omega-3 fatty acids associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms
A cross-sectional analysis of the Zutphen Elderly Study showed that men with an average daily intake of the fish fatty acids EPA-DHA (407 mg per day), followed for 10 years, had a 54% lower risk of depressive symptoms compared to those with an average daily intake of 21 mg/d. An explanation for this association might be that low levels of EPA-DHA are associated with low levels of neurotransmitters and with markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.
B-vitamins not related to depressive symptoms
Major depression is associated with lower blood levels of B-vitamins. The B-vitamins folate, vitamin B6 and B12 are involved in the production of neurotransmitters and low levels are associated with depression. However, in a cross-sectional analysis, the intake of B-vitamins was not related to depressive symptoms in the Zutphen Elderly Study.