Coffee may promote cognitive function in contrast to alcohol and smoking
In elderly men of the FINE study, moderate coffee drinking was associated with less cognitive decline, while alcohol consumption and tobacco-smoking were not related to cognition.
Coffee associated with less cognitive decline
The least cognitive decline was observed for elderly men who consumed 3 cups of coffee/day. It was 4 times less than the decline among non-consumers. The association between coffee consumption and cognitive decline over a 10-year period was investigated in the FINE study. In Finland, 90% of the elderly men drank coffee, while 95% did so in The Netherlands and 50% in Italy.
Alcohol and smoking not related to cognitive decline
Alcohol consumption was not related to cognitive decline in men without CVD or diabetes at entry. About 80% of the elderly men in Zutphen used alcohol while only 5% drank as many as 3 drinks per day. There was also no association between cigarette smoking and cognitive decline in men without CVD or diabetes at entry. In Zutphen, only 23% of men aged 70-89 smoked cigarettes.