Disability associated with depressive symptoms
Increasing severity of disability from entry to 5-year follow-up was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Men with no disability scored lower on depressive symptoms than those with disability in any of three domains (see below). The associations were stronger in Finland and Italy than in the Netherlands. Among men with mild disability, whose disability status worsened over 5 years, scored higher on depressive symptoms than those whose status improved.
In elderly men from Finland, Italy and the Netherlands, self-reported information on disability and depressive symptoms was collected on 2 surveys, in 1990 and 1995. Three domains of disability were distinguished: instrumental, mobility-related and basic activities using the WHO questionnaire on Activities of Daily Living.