Job-related activity associated with lower CHD risk
When the Seven Countries Study started in the 1960s, the emphasis on the lifestyle factor of physical activity was on occupation, that is, on job-related physical activity. The men were classified in three categories: sedentary, moderately active and very active. An analysis using data from 12 of the 16 cohorts showed that sedentary men compared to moderately active men had a 21% lower risk of 20-year CHD mortality. A 38% lower CHD mortality was observed comparing those with heavy activity jobs to sedentary men.
More active leisure time related to lower CVD risk
In the US railroad cohort, leisure-time activity was measured by a detailed questionnaire. Men who spent more than 2000 kcal/week on leisure-time physical activity had a 29% lower 20-year CHD mortality compared to men who expended less than 250 kcal/week exercising. In the elderly men in Zutphen, walking or cycling at least three times per week for 20 minutes (the recommended level of physical activity for the elderly) was associated with a 34% lower 10-year cardiovascular mortality compared to more sedentary men.