High cohort flavonol intake related to low CHD mortality rates.
The average flavonol intake varied in the 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study between <10 mg/day in the rural Finnish and >60 mg/day in the rural Japanese cohorts. After 25 years of follow-up the CHD mortality rate was 6 times higher among farmers from Eastern Finland compared to those in Japan. The average cohort flavonol intake was significantly inversely associated with 25-year CHD mortality rates.
The intake of flavonols
Information on the average food intake of the 16 cohorts was obtained in the 1960s, and the average flavonol intake was determined chemically in representative food composites. The most common flavonol measured was quercetin. Flavonols are a subclass of the flavodnoids, an extended class of chemically related compounds ubiquitously present in plant foods. In a range of experimental models, these compounds have demonstrated biological effects, which may partially explain the beneficial health effects of a diet high in vegetables and fruits. Flavonols are present in tea, apples, onions and red wine. High intakes were observed in Japan due to a high consumption of tea, in Slavonia (Croatia) due to a high intake of onions and in Dalmatia (Croatia) because of a high intake of red wine.