Cardiovascular risk factors and all-cause mortality in the elderly

In elderly, smoking and heart rate predict all-cause mortality

In elderly men from Finland, The Netherlands and Italy, age, smoking and heart rate were positively associated with excess 10-year all-cause mortality. The association of systolic blood pressure with all-cause mortality was marginally significant at 10 years. HDL-cholesterol and body mass index were significantly inversely related to all-cause mortality after 10 years of follow-up but these associations were no longer significant after excluding early deaths (during the first 5 years of follow-up).

These results suggest that smoking and heart rate (an indicator of physical activity and fitness) remain useful risk factors in prediction of all-cause mortality up to old age.

References

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Studies in the elderly

The Zutphen Elderly, HALE and FINE studies researched the indicators of healthy ageing.

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