Cardiovascular risk factors and all-cause mortality in the elderly

In elderly, smoking and heart rate predict all-cause mortality

In elderly men from Finland, The Netherlands and Italy, age, smoking and heart rate were positively associated with excess 10-year all-cause mortality. The association of systolic blood pressure with all-cause mortality was marginally significant at 10 years. HDL-cholesterol and body mass index were significantly inversely related to all-cause mortality after 10 years of follow-up but these associations were no longer significant after excluding early deaths (during the first 5 years of follow-up).These results suggest that smoking and heart rate (an indicator of physical activity and fitness) remain useful risk factors in prediction of all-cause mortality up to old age.

About the FINE study

In 1984, the SCS field surveys were extended with different aspects of health in the FINE (Finland Italy Netherlands Elderly) study. Similar surveys were also carried out in Serbia and Crete. Read more about the FINE study.

More about healthy aging

From 1984 onwards, additional studies started to examine indicators of healthy ageing in the elderly populations of in the SCS and related studies.


Measuring functional status

Functional status was measured with a self-administered 13-item WHO-questionnaire on activities of daily living.

More about serum cholesterol and CHD

Serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease

Cholesterol found in the blood serum is, in higher quantities, associated with a higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). This is the conclusion after observing serum cholesterol levels and CHD risk mortality for forty years.