Smoking and cardiovascular disease

Smoking increases CHD risk

When the Seven Countries Study started in 1958 the prevalence of smokers was very high and ranged from 44% in Belgrade professors in Serbia to 78% in fishermen from Ushibuka in Japan. The 10-year follow-up data showed that smoking was associated with a higher risk of CHD mortality in countries where there were enough events for analysis and the strongest associations were observed in northern Europe where CHD was highest. An analysis using the 25-year CHD mortality data showed similar results.  

Smoking a long-term predictor of CVD

The Finnish cohorts showed that the relative risk of CHD mortality among cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers decreased the longer the follow-up, but the excess CHD risk remained significant after 35 years of follow-up. The 40-year data from the Zutphen Study showed that cigarette smokers at entry had a 59% higher CHD and a 66% higher CVD mortality risk compared to non-smokers. The duration, as well as the intensity of smoking, was also independently predictive of CVD mortality.

About the Zutphen Elderly Study

The Zutphen Elderly Study is an extension of the original Zutphen Study with a sample of the same age where detailed information on the diet of all the participants was collected four times between 1985 and 2000.  Read more about the Zutphen (Elderly) Study.

More about healthy aging

From 1984 onwards, additional studies started to examine indicators of healthy ageing in the elderly populations of in the SCS and related studies.


Smoking and cardiovascular disease

An analysis using data from Seven Countries Study showed that CHD mortality was 5% higher in men who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day compared to those who never smoked.

Measuring functional status

Functional status was measured with a self-administered 13-item WHO-questionnaire on activities of daily living.

Physical activity and disability

The results suggest that even in old age among relatively healthy men, a physically active lifestyle was inversely related to disability.

More about the relationship between lifestyle and CVD

Chronic diseases and all-cause mortality

The relations of different chronic diseases with all-cause mortality was studied from middle-age onwards in the Seven Countries Study and in old age in the FINE Study.