Cardiovascular risk factors and long-term all-cause mortality

Many cardiovascular risk factors related to all-cause mortality

In the Seven Countries Study age, systolic blood pressure, smoking and serum cholesterol predicted 25-year all-cause mortality in most cohorts. These risk factors were also predictive of 40-year all-cause mortality in the US railroad and the Cretan cohort. An analysis of the European cohorts showed that systolic blood pressure remained a strong predictor of excess relative risk of all-cause mortality during 35 years of follow-up. The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up years (aging) while absolute risk increased greatly with age.

In the rural Italian cohorts other risk factors were also related to 40-year all-cause mortality, namely: mortality of father and mother before age 60, job-related physical activity (inversely related), body mass index (inverse J-shaped), mid-arm circumference (inversely related), lung function (inversely related) and the presence of corneal arcus, xanthalasmata and of any category of clinical CVD, diabetes or cancer at entry.

More about healthy aging

From 1984 onwards, additional studies started to examine indicators of healthy ageing in the elderly populations of in the SCS and related studies.


Smoking and cardiovascular disease

An analysis using data from Seven Countries Study showed that CHD mortality was 5% higher in men who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day compared to those who never smoked.

Chronic diseases and all-cause mortality

The relations of different chronic diseases with all-cause mortality was studied from middle-age onwards in the Seven Countries Study and in old age in the FINE Study.

Lifestyle, diet and optimism

A healthy diet, especially eating more fruit, vegetables, and whole grain bread was related to a higher level of optimism.

More about blood pressure and CVD