Fish and cardiovascular disease

Eating fish associated with a lower risk of  fatal CHD and stroke

The Zutphen Study showed in 1985 that eating fish once or twice a week compared to eating no fish was associated with a 50% lower 20-year fatal CHD risk. In 1994 we also found that fish consumption was inversely associated with a 50% lower incidence of non-fatal and fatal stroke.

Fatty fish compared to lean fish

The Finnish, Dutch and Italian cohorts showed that men eating fatty fish (e.g. mackerel and herring) had a 34% lower 20-year CHD mortality risk compared to those eating no fish. The consumption of lean fish, such as plaice and cod, had no comparable association with lower CHD risk. Analysis of the dietary data repeatedly collected between 1960 and 2000 in the Zutphen Study also showed that eating fatty fish but not lean fish was inversely associated with long-term risk of sudden coronary death.

More about the relationship between diet and CVD

Smoking and cardiovascular disease

An analysis using data from Seven Countries Study showed that CHD mortality was 5% higher in men who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day compared to those who never smoked.

Mediterranean dietary patterns in the 1960s

The traditional Mediterranean diet was a nutritionally adequate diet with a varying total fat content, low in saturated fat and very low in trans fat, rich in fiber and antioxidant vitamins or flavonoids.