Wine and cardiovascular disease

Wine intake associated with lower cardiovascular risk

Wine drinkers in Zutphen who at entry of the study consumed less than 20 g alcohol from wine per day – the equivalent of 2 glasses – had a 39% lower risk of coronary death and a 32% lower risk of overall cardiovascular mortality. Consumption of beer and spirits was related neither to long-term coronary or cardiovascular mortality. These results are compatible with the idea but do not establish, that a low intake of wine may protect against CVD.

Continuous increase in wine consumption over time in Zutphen

In the Zutphen Study information on alcoholic drinks consumed was collected by questionnaires seven times between 1960 and 2000. Regular wine consumption increased from 2% of the men to 40%. Of the wine consumed, 70% was red. The percentage of beer drinkers was approximately 40% in the period 1960-1970 and fell to about 25% in the period 1985-2000. The percentage of men drinking spirits increased from 15% in 1960 to 55% in 1985 and did not change thereafter.

About the Zutphen Elderly Study

The Zutphen Elderly Study is an extension of the original Zutphen Study with a sample of the same age where detailed information on the diet of all the participants was collected four times between 1985 and 2000.  Read more about the Zutphen (Elderly) Study.

More about the relationship between diet and CVD

Mediterranean dietary patterns in the 1960s

The traditional Mediterranean diet was a nutritionally adequate diet with a varying total fat content, low in saturated fat and very low in trans fat, rich in fiber and antioxidant vitamins or flavonoids.

More about the relationship between lifestyle and CVD

Flavonols and cardiovascular disease

In 1993 it was found for the first time that a high intake of flavonols was associated with a 68% lower 5-year fatal CHD risk. This result was confirmed using 10-year mortality data.

Lifestyle, diet and optimism

A healthy diet, especially eating more fruit, vegetables, and whole grain bread was related to a higher level of optimism.