Alcohol, all-cause mortality and long-term survival

Low alcohol intake associated with low all-cause mortality and better survival

Among regular consumers of alcoholic beverages in the Zutphen Study, average alcohol intake increased from 8 g/d in 1960 to 18 g/d in 1985 and then decreased to 13 g/d in 2000. All-cause mortality during 40 years of follow-up was 25% lower in men who drank less than 20 g alcohol per day and on average 6 g/d compared to non-drinkers. Men average aged 50 with a long-term regular alcohol intake of 20 g/d or less, had a 2.3 years longer life expectancy than those who did not use alcohol.

Wine drinkers had the best life expectancy

The life expectancy of wine drinkers (average age 50, average alcohol intake 2 g/d) was 4.7 years longer compared to those who did not use alcohol. For those who consumed on average 8 g/d alcohol as beer or spirits the difference in life expectancy from non-alcohol drinkers was 2.2 years.

About the Zutphen Elderly Study

The Zutphen Elderly Study is an extension of the original Zutphen Study with a sample of the same age where detailed information on the diet of all the participants was collected four times between 1985 and 2000.  Read more about the Zutphen (Elderly) Study.

More about healthy aging

From 1984 onwards, additional studies started to examine indicators of healthy ageing in the elderly populations of in the SCS and related studies.


Functional status and disability

The number of self-reported disabilities was positively related to the performance-based limitations score and did not differ between countries.

Smoking and cardiovascular disease

An analysis using data from Seven Countries Study showed that CHD mortality was 5% higher in men who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day compared to those who never smoked.

Chronic diseases and all-cause mortality

The relations of different chronic diseases with all-cause mortality was studied from middle-age onwards in the Seven Countries Study and in old age in the FINE Study.