Cardiovascular risk factors and depressive symptoms

Poor lung function associated with depression

Data from the Finnish and Italian cohorts showed that poor lung function in men aged 50-69 was associated with subsequent depressive symptoms 15-30 years later. This association was stronger in men with chronic diseases than in those without.

Decline in serum cholesterol predictor of depression

Among elderly men from Finland, The Netherlands, and Italy, a 5-year decline in total serum cholesterol level was a predictor of depressive symptoms 5 years later. Men with two or more cardiovascular risk factors at entry  (obesity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or diabetes) had no higher future risk of depression in the Zutphen Elderly Study.

About the Zutphen Elderly Study

The Zutphen Elderly Study is an extension of the original Zutphen Study with a sample of the same age where detailed information on the diet of all the participants was collected four times between 1985 and 2000.  Read more about the Zutphen (Elderly) Study.

More about serum cholesterol and CVD

Serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease

Cholesterol found in the blood serum is, in higher quantities, associated with a higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). This is the conclusion after observing serum cholesterol levels and CHD risk mortality for forty years.

More about mental health, cognitive decline & depression